By: Mr. N. K. Bozai
History of Sindh is as rich as its culture, its traditions,
its language, its moral value, its social diversity and its
civilization. With such obvious attractions it was destined
to offer temptation not only to immediate neighbors but to
far flung invaders like the Portuguese and the English.
Such political and cultural pressures resulted in local
intellectual resistance which slowly and gradually attained
its full strength by the advent of Islam in this part of the
This began a new era in the history of Sindh. From than
onwards awareness of "Human Rights" in general were
publicized and practiced unreservedly. A growing sense for
the establishment of a "Just Society" which can offer:-
Equal opportunity to masses.
Respectable living to every citizen.
Protection against all kinds of 'Exploitation of Man by
Freedom of thought and speech.
Freedom to earn their living.
Protection against 'Forced Slavery' the remains of such
Slavery are still being reported by our media today.
Right of 'Self Determination' of their social religious and
Protection against 'Imperialistic Forces' existing at that
time etc etc. was but a natural and well justified thanking.
Sindh was therefore looking for a radical change in social &
political life structure. It had tasted the Hindu
Imperialism, the Arab Dominance, the Turkish Monarchy, the
Afghan Rule, Hegemony of Mughal India so on so forth.
The Kalhora dynasty was perhaps the first to represent the
The most probable reason which made them 'Revolutionary' and
become Torch Bearers of 'Self Determination' in Sind was
really the oppression and injustice they faced from the
Mughal imperialism and the unmagnanimous attitude of 'Ulmas'
of the time. Kalhoras had no political ambitions. They were
basically 'Darwaish Sifat' Religious sect and followers of
Syed Mohammad of Jaunpur who believed him to be 'Mehdi-e-Maud'
whose grand father Syed Osman Sherazi an Aalim of high
stature came to Delhi along with King Taimoor in 801 A.D.
After the departure of Taimoor, Syed Osman Sherazi stayed in
Delhi and than shifted to Jaupur which was the centre of
Ilm-o-Adab and was commonly known as SHIRAZ of HIND.
Unfortunately, contemporary historians intentionally avoid
to mention his name and give due credit to him or his
followers who have been part and parcel of histories of
Sindh, Balochistan, Makran, Afghanistan, Masqat, Kirman,
Southern Khurasan and Central Punjab the whole of 'Seraiki'
speaking area Gujrat, Mando, Palanpur, Ahmed Nagar, Jodhpur,
Jiapur, Jalore, Nagore, Bijapur, Burhanpur, Biyana, Mysoor,
Berar, Marwar, Deccan, Madrass etc. etc.
Our historians and journalists tend to forget the ethics and
code of conduct as prescribed in the Holy Quran for every
one of us.
"Confound not truth with falsehood, nor knowingly conceal
the facts". (Al-Baqra-42).
The fact is that millions of Syed Mohammad's followers have
contributed to the progress welfare & prosperity of the
countries wherever they lived .Their contribution is in
every walk of national lives. How can we forget Qazi Qaden
A.R, Shah Inyat Sofi, Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Sachhal
Sarmast, Mir Shahdad Khan Talpur, Mir Chakar Khan Laghari,
Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung?
Kalhoras religious belief is an integral part of their
glorious history. Any attempt to isolate them from their
strong religious character which was the main source of
their strength will simply mean 'Beating around the Bush'
and hypocritically continuing the so called "Research" of
history. People gathered around them in the time of their
"poverty" & "Faqiree". They had a very large community of
followers & Peerbhais comprising of multitude of
With regard to their Peerbhais religious character Maulana
Azad writes on page # 41 of "TAZKARA" (Urdu Published by
Javaid Brothers, Lahore):
"These people had strange habits & living, peculiar enough
to remind the living habits of Sahaba-e-Ikram".
On page 54 he writes & admires by saying:
"Much information is available in Tazkarat-ul-Wasileen in
the chapter related to Shaikh Dawood and by reading these an
strange and mind wondering feeling is experienced and one
desires to leave everything aside and just keepon talking
about those truthful and clean people"!
"Centuries have passed by and yet if their reference is made
even today it leaves us wondering and questioning what could
have been the impact on our hearts if we were in their
These people used to live outside the city in their own
colonies, which they used to call 'Daira'. This word under
the influence of local linguistic affects appears as 'Dero'
or 'Dera' etc but some of them still exist in their original
from like, 'Daire Langar Khan' in Lahore, 'Daire Deen Punnah'
near Kot Addu in the Punjab, 'Daira Drazo' originally 'DARAZ'
where Hazrat Sachal Sarmast Shrine stands in Sindh, or 'Diara
Gurgi Balgator' in Turbat Baluchistan. Others are 'Nao Dero'
near Larkana which is 'Naya Daira', 'Rajo Dero' near western
border of Khanpur with Baluchistan, 'Daira Basti' outside
Multan. Perhaps Dera Ghazi Khan & Dera Ismail Khan are also
'DAIRAS' because these towns are famous for Mehdavia
Populations and these two Generals had been sent by King
Aurangzeb from Gujrat to Punjab.
Expulsion & persecution of Mehdavis had been a very popular
'Sport' of many worldly Ulmas/Mullah's and at times even the
Kings & provincial Governors were involved in this 'Cruel
game'. Mian Adam Shah Kalhora, a very pious and saintly
follower of Syed Mohammad Mehdi A.S. did not escape the
wrath and crucification by Multan's Governor who imprisoned
him and eventually martyred him for reasons more than what
is generally being given in our histories.
He did not belong to 'Qabza Group' and occupied others land
by force. History admits and recognizes him as a holy
religious leader. He believed in Quranic inference: AL-ARZO
LILLAH ! He also blieved in "APNA OGAO APNA KHAO".
The teachings of the Masluk certainly have stronger
inclination towards 'Amar Bil Maroof wa Nahi Anil Munkir'
and even greater emphases on 'Honesty", " Equality of Human
Rights", " Social Justice", recognition of "Hoqooq Allah &
In those days Muslims had drifted from the real teachings of
Islam and Sharia was manipulated to cater individual needs.
Practicing judiciary had double standards and Fatwas to suit
the needs of people were available at a price, details can
be read in 'TAZKARA' by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. There was a
need to revive the true spirit of Islam.
Followers of the Masluk including Mian Adam Shah & his
followers had undertaken revival of the spirit of Sharia
which involved re-introduction of the practice of:-
I. Total submission to Allah and his
II. Amar Bil Maroof (Practicing of
Rightful actions and stopping of wrong acts).
Sawieth (equality of Human
rights and equal distribution of resources).
Ijma (Democratic approach on matter of collective
Usher (10 percent tax on income).
Tawakkal (Reliance on Allah).
Hijrat (Migration for Tableegh).
Sohbat-e-Sadiqeen (company of Truthfuls)
Tarak-e-Hubbe-Dunnya (discarding the love of worldly
Zikir Allah (Remembrance of Allah).
Uzlat (loneness for meditation and Tuzzakia).
Talab-e-Deedar-e-Ilahi (Urge to see and meet Allah
Subhanah-o-wa-Taala in order to achieve real Maarefat).
The economic structure of the society was looked after by
imposing 10% Tax on the income or productivity of the "Kasib"
- a person who works outside the 'Daira'. This tax called
'USHER' along with the Zakat was collected from 'Sahib-e-Nisab'.
Another approach was that country's resources are created
for all the human beings and a "just & fair distribution"
based on the individual contribution and efforts, is the
responsibility of the 'Ool-ul-amar'. On the other hand
accumulation of wealth, hoarding of commodities or for that
matter anything in excess of one's need was regarded as
violation of tenants of the Masluk, which proved to be a
stumbling block for the new generation. In-fact their
practical system of Usher & distribution of community
resource itself is a separate subject of research.
Mian Adam Shah Kalhora while practicing the above tenants
happened to annoy lot of his neighboring feudals & land
lords because the Haries were now getting equal share from
the income of their cultivated crop in addition to humanly
treatment, like brothers of one family and at the same time
getting groomed as good practicing Muslims. Truth and social
justice prevailed attracting the masses.
The friction between the powerful Feudals supported by the
Government and helpless locals increased resulting in the
growth of an "Opposition" which gained strength day by day.
Leadership of the sect was imprisoned not only in Sindh but
throughout India, some were tortured to death. Hundreds and
thousands of families were driven out and forced to migrate.
Armies were used to extinguish the sect and their 'Dairas'
in Gujrat and Bayana. Judiciary and clergy were used and
mobilized to justify state's action.
Dr. Istiaq Hussain Qureshi in his Book "BARRE SAGHIR
PAK-O-HIND KI MILLAT-E-ISLAMIA" writes on page no. 173:-
"Religious beliefs are never suppressed in this manner.
MAKHDUM-UL-MULK (ABDULLAH SULTANPURI) had to run a campaign
in order to over come the Mehdavis which eventually
destroyed them but the doctrine of 'Correct Believes'
suffered an irreparable damage. At that time the only
disagreement between true Muslims and Mehdavis was that the
latter mentioned had accepted Syed Mohammad as Mahdi and
were strict observers of the Islamic statutes (FRAIZ-E-ISLAM).
In reality, a strange situation had emerged whereby those
who were the leaders and fore runners in adhering and
following the Sharia were being doubted as deviators from
Thus, state and its cultivated religious machinery provided
complementary services to each other. Their tyranny was
unchecked as there were no "Human Rights Organization" or
"International Courts of Justice" to reprimand the
governments of that time. As a result a lot of its followers
went under ground.
Shaikh Mubarak Sindhi, father of Allama Faizi and Alma Abdul
Fazal was forced to go into hiding. He lived a fugitive life
for years together. Detail account is given by Mohammad
Hussain Azad in his famous Darbar-e-Akbari.
Mian Mir Balapir of Lahore a maternal grand son of Hazrat
Qazi R.A. had to take refuge in Lahore and live an anonymous
life for almost forty years. He has been labeled as "Qadri'
by his well wishers and followers who did not like to expose
him as Mehdvi to the state authorities or 'Ulmas'. So also
Mian Mir's Murshed Hazrat Sayed Kizr who lived an anonymous
life in Sevestan. The history does not know who he was!
His real identity is - he was Syed Mohammad's great grand
son! It goes like this - Syed Kizr bin Syed Ashraf bin Syed
Yaqoob bin Syed Mehmood bin Syed Mohammad Mahdi A.S.
Such is the sad history of early Pirs & Pirbhais of Kalhoras
According to Tuhfatul Ikram in 995 A.H. on the expedition of
conquest of Sindh, Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khanan approached Mian
Adam Shah Kalhora for his blessing and with a request to
pray for his success in his mission. Khan-e-Khanan gifted
some land at Chanduka as his "offering" for Fuqra's
Mian Adam Shah's prayers were answered and Khan-e-Khanan
A similar case in history is about Sardar Khan who was
blessed by Mian Naseer Mohammad to become ZARDAR KHAN who's
progeny runs up to present Zardaries.
After the hanging of Hazrat Adam Shah Kalhora R.A., time
passed by wounds were healing but the Ulmas and the land
lords did not forget them. They again framed fictitious
charges against his third Gaddi Nasheen. Mian Shah Mohammad
who was killed in prison in 1657 A.D. by the authorities. He
was succeeded by another very pious young man Mian Naseer
Mohammad. He also was arrested in 1675 A.D. and handed over
to King Aurangzaib who was famous for intolerance in the
addition or alteration in Sharia. The idea was that since
the King himself was an Aalim and he would readily denounce
Mian Naseer Mohammad a 'Kafir' and throw him into the
Here again, after few years of imprisonment the 'HAQ'
prevailed. The King was pressurized by Ulmas and so he
organized a Manazira between the Ulma-e-Waqat and the
Mehdavi Ulmas to determine the truth about the faith and
also to pass a decree for Mian's persecution. This Manazira
is known as 'Mubahisse Alamgiri' and took place in the year
1095 A.H. (1678 A.D.) in Ahmed Nagar. Once again neither the
Ulma nor the King could find anything seriously
objectionable to enable them pronounce a decree of 'Kufr'.
It is believed that Mian Naseer Mohammad was released as a
consequence of the MUNAZIRA. He was a great Sofi and Godli-man
(A Wali). His place in spiritualism was like Mian Adam Shah,
High & Lofty! A man with vision and wisdom, highly respected
among his mureeds and non-mureeds.
He was an Alim-ba-Amal & Murshad-e-Kamil. A perfect
Mutawakkil who did not fear anyone but Allah!
It is worth mentioning here that Mian Naseer Mohammad was
the first Kalhora Murshed who had fought a battle with the
Government forces in around 1675 A.D. and defeated the royal
army sent by Mir Yaqoob, Governor of Bakhar.
Due to such capabilities and his ever increasing number of
followers, 'Delhi Darbar' decided to compromise & allow or
ignore 'controlled self rule' in his area thus the
foundation stone of Kalhora Dynasty was laid
Over the years Delhi's grip was getting weaker & weaker
where as the 'Kalhora governance' was growing from strength
As reported in the last seminar by Professor. Dr. Liaq Ali
Zardari, following chiefs & prominent members of various
notable tribes had unanimously accepted Mian Naseer Mohammad
as their Murshed.
Faujo Fakhir Somroo, Shah Punjo Sultan Dhot, Gulbeg Talpur,
Sobedar Talpur, Jango Khan Jamali, Hasil Lashari, Murad
Kaleri, Bagh Mohammad Chandio, Galo Khoso, Hyder Laghari,
Shah Godrio Khoso, Yar Mohammad Rind, Kamal Khan Mashori,
Meran Solangi, Gul Mohammad Laghari, Darya Khan Berhamni,
Sohrab Jatoi, Belawal Zardari, Fatho Zardari, Dongar Magsi,
Samito, Nizamani and Sittar tribes.
History is a witness that the brutality continued. Its third
famous victim was from the same clergy. This time it was
Mian Deen Mohammad A.R. who was imprisoned and Killed in
Multan Jail by no other man than Prince Moizuddin, the
grandson of King Aurangzaib in 1700 A.D. who was a Shia from
his mother's side and had ordered mentioning of the names of
Twelve Imams in the weekly KHUTBAS in the mosques. This
obviously was an attempt to resist the spread of Mahdaviat .
After this brutal and un-civilized behavior of the rulers,
the reaction took its course. Kalhoras gained new strength
and vitality by their growing number of followers. Their
popularity rose to new heights and the Government had to
officially recognize the emerging reality.
Mian Yar Mohammad was officially contracted on certain terms
to run some parts of the province of Northern Sindh. Details
of the contract/agreement can be referred in Tareeq-e-Sind
by Ghulam Rasool Mehar.
This agreement maintained Delhi's supremacy. Kalhoras did
not foresee its repercussion. They had actually accepted
King of Delhi as "Ool-ul-Amar". Being strict followers of
Quran & Sunnah - a fact which was always exploited by Delhi
Darbar to their own advantage, the God Fearing Mian Yar had
to fight against his own Pir-Bhai Hazrat Shah Enayat Sofi
A.R. in obedience of Ool-ul-Amar which is the sadist part of
Mian Yar Mohammad's career.
A truce/compromise was forced on Shah Enayat Sofi when
Nobles and his very own trusted 'Mureed' Mir Shahdad Khan
Talpur guaranteed his safety after Holy Quran was made a
witness between Government forces and Shah's forces. Mir
Shahdad & Mian Yar Mohammad also believed the Government
commitment. But things changed in the office of Azam Khan
the Governor of Thatta and Shah Enayat Sofi was imprisoned
and finally martyred in 1130 A.H. (1718 A.D.) and his head
was chopped off & sent to Delhi Darbar!
This was a successful conspiracy to weaken the strength of
the followers of the same faith. It is obvious that
"Obedience of Ool-ul-Amar" a Quranic Order was used
cunningly to move Mian Yar Mohammad against Shah Enayat A.R.
very cleverly and successfully by the Government. A number
of notables of that time like Hazrat Janullah Shah Rizvi,
Mir Moeen Thatvi, Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai etc. etc. were
angry on the incidence but an unforgettable chapter in the
history was made to appear and last for ever.
In 1738 A.D. Nadir Shah invaded Sindh and Hind completely
destroying and wrecking the economy of both earlier
mentioned parties. He looted their wealth and divided Mian's
Dominion into three parts & only one third was left with
them. He also, either destroyed the books and libraries or
taken away most valuable scripts of Holy Quran and many
other important manuscripts. This was not the end of his
loot! Mian Noor Mohammad Kalhora had to pay One Crore Rupees
and a yearly ransom of Rs. 20 lacs. He took away Mian's two
sons Muradyab Khan and Ghulam Shah as 'security' to ensure
timely payments by Mian Noor Mohammad. These two sons being
of young age Hazrat Belawal Zardari was entrusted to
accompany & look after them in Iran while in Nadir Shah's
This important assignment signifies the diplomatic caliber,
the royal dependency, the closeness and trust worthiness of
Hazrat Belawal Zardari (1705 - 1754 A.D.) with Mian Noor
It appears that younger generation of Kalhoras drifted away
from the original teachings and desired the pomp & glory in
this world and it was fulfilled by Allah Subhana-o-wa-Taala.
In 1715 A.D. Mian Yar Mohammad was officially appointed by
Delhi as official 'Ruler' of the province.
So, from hence forth with royal decree in their hands the
young Kalhoras started collecting the land revenue, money
started pouring in, reins of power was in their hands.
Regular army was employed. Slowly and gradually a system of
governing and running of the country was shaping up,
demanding more time, more attention of the leadership who
were basically of religious discipline and who preferred to
opt for devotion to Allah, sit in isolation purifying their
souls, Qalab and Nafas by Ziker-wo-Fiker and establishing
From the point of view of the Historians and the worldly
people "Golden Period of the Dynasty" started. Their
achievements in the introduction & development of:-
1. Human relations.
2. Provincial administration & economic structure.
3. Land management, Agriculture and Irrigation system of the
4. Education in masses.
5. Military training in Mosques along with religious
6. Literature & Poetry.
7. New architecture.
8. Maritime Logistics.
Including building of new Towns etc. etc. are an
unforgettable chapters of Sind's history. Each topic itself
had been a subject of research on their own.
I) Human Relations:
This is definitely one very important area where Kalhoras
have concentrated and managed to improve relations between
various ethnic & religious communities, particularly between
Hindoos and Muslims. Hindoos were trusted and given very
important position in the administration of the affairs of
the country. Some famous Hindoo personalities which we find
in Kalhora history are:
Barkhurdar Mehta Moto Mal, Diwan Mugo Mal, Diwan Chelaram,
Diwan Ghunshamdas, Lala Amrat Rai, Diwan Tara Chand,
Shewakram "ATTARD" etc. etc. Just to mention few of them.
The details of their contributions if described will spread
over several pages in the history.
Contemporary History therefore will recognize Kalhoras as
First Non Ethnic and secular Rulers of Sindh.
II) Canals & Irrigation System:
It is believed that following canals were built in Kalhoras
time & constituted the irrigation system of the country.
Lambrik has given account of the some of the below mentioned
canals but an extensive study has been done by Dr. Professor
One can imagine with so many new canals how may more acres
of baran land must have become productive and how much self
sufficiency in agriculture produce must have been achieved
and how many jobs must have been provided to jobless people.
III) Mosques and Schools:
Kalhoras have built a number of Mosques. Each Tomb they
built had its own separate Mosque but most elegant and
perhaps the largest one was built by Mian Yar Mohammad and
it is known as "Jame Masjid Khuda Abad". It is believed that
Mian Yar Mohammad did not complete it. Its construction was
completed in Mian Noor Mohammad's period.
As mentioned earlier these Mosques were also serving the
purpose of schools for educational purpose as was done in
the early Islamic period. The only peculiarity was that they
were also using them for imparting military training.
i. Mian Adam Shah Kalhora in Sukkhar
ii. Mian Shahel Mohammad near Qamber.
iii. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhora in Hyderabad.
iv. Mian Shah Bahara in Larkana
v. Mian Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai near Hala.
Whereas Mian Naseer Mohammad's tomb had been built by Mian
Yar Mohammad and Mian Noor Mohammad's tomb was built in the
time of Mian Muradyab Khan.
Among the mentionable forts made by Kalhoras are:-
i. Hyderabad Fort which is under destruction now.
ii. Badin Fort which is ruined.
iii. Larkana Fort which does not exist anymore.
iv. Shah Ghar near Kach.
VI) Sea Port:
Mian Ghulam Shah is also known to have built Shah Bunder a
Port near Kach which he abandon after the power struggle,
between his brother, Attar Khan & himself, was over.
VII) Cities & Townships:
Historians mention that following cities have come into
being in the Kalhora period:-
Khuda Abad - which is believed to be spread over 50 Acres
originally but now it is deserted and only the graveyard
part of it is existing along with few buildings. It was
built by Mian Yar Mohammad.
Mohammad Abad - this was built by Mian Noor Mohammad.
Murad Abad - this new city was built in 1754 A.D. and the
coronation ceremony of Mian Muradyab Khan took place here.
It was situated on the bank of a river near Nasarpur and is
now under its bed.
Allah Abad - Mian Ghulam Shah built this city following the
destruction of Murad Abad and its present name is Shapur.
Hyderabad - old city of Nairan Kot was modernized its
boundaries extended, Pukka Qila was built and new name
Hyderabad was given to it by Mian Ghulam Shah in 1182 A.D.
Khuda Abad - Mian Sarfaraz had built this city which is near
VIII) Some Notables of Kalhora Dynasty:
Perhaps by mentioning certain names of notables I may be
able to condense the history whose contribution in various
fields speaks volumes about the subject of their excellence.
Mir Ali Sher Qane.
Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai.
Makhdoom Jaffar Bobakai
Makhdoom Abul Qasim.
Makhdoom Mohammad Hashim.
Allama Mohammad Hayat Sindhi.
Makhdoom Abdur Raoof.
Sheikh Mohammad Mehfooz Sarkhosh.
Mir Najamuddin "Uzlat".
Mir Shahdad Khan Talpur.
Syed Jan Allah "Mir".
Mohammad Ali Aali.
Ghulam Ali "Muddah".
Shah Ali Raza "Darwaish".
Mir Lutfullah Mutaro.
Belawal Khan Naich.
Mussoo Faqeer Samito.
Hazrat Sachhal Sarmast.
With such strong credentials and commendable achievements in
literature, poetry, architecture, land reclamation,
agriculture development, irrigation system, revenue
collection & administration system, military training and
mass literacy programme, Kalhoras period of Governance from
1700-1784 A.D. can truly be labeled and identified as a
period of progress and prosperity for the people of Sind
regardless of their cast creed, colour, religious or ethnic
identity. They have truly accomplished peace and tranquility
for every citizen of the country which is really the
"Ultimate Goal" of every Government of past or present
Tuhfatul Ikram by Ali Sher Qane, Sindhi Adbi Board.
Tareeq-e-Masoomi, Mir Masoom Bakhri, Sindhi Adbi Board.
Tareeq-e-Sind, Ghulam Rasool Mehar, Sindhi Adbi Board.
Muntakhabu-T-Tawarikh, English Translation by Lt. Col.
T.Wolseley Haig, (Idara-e-Adbiyat, Delhi).
Tazkara by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (Javaid Brothers -
Oriental College Magazine, Lahore, August 1938.
Darbar-e-Akbari, Maulana Mohammad Hussain Azad,
The Mehdavi Movement in India by Dr. Qamaruddin,
Tareeq-e-Sind by Ijazul Haq Quddosi, Urdu Science Board,
Wali-e-Sind, Mian Noor Mohammad Klhora, proceeding of
National Seminar edited by Dr. Liaq Zardari, Sind Historical
Society, Moro 1991.
The Religious quest of India by E.C. Dewick and Dr. Murray
T. Titus, National Christian Council India, Burma & Ceylon.
Nian Zindagi, Shah Shaheed Number, Sindhi Querterly, May
1970, information Department, government of Pakistan,
Baluchistan may Mehdavi Tehrik, Professor Rahimdad Khan
Maulai Shedai, Pakistan Zikri Mehdavi Anjuman, Kalri,
Mehr-e-Villayat, 1991 Hyderabad Deccan.
Sindhi Quarterly Mehran, June 1995, Sindhi Adbi Board,
Aulia-e-Sind, Ijazul Haq Quddosi, Urdu Academy Sind, Bundar
Mubahis-e-Alamgiri, Anjuman Mehdavia, Hyderabad, Deccan.
Shah Sachhal Sami, 1689 - 1850 Hek Mutalo by Dr. Mohammad
Ibrahim Joyo, Roshan Publication, Kandyaro, 1990 A.D.
Tareeq-e-Hind by Mohammad Qasim Farishta, Lahore.
Barr-e-Saghir Pak-o-Hind Ki Millat-e-Islamia.
By Dr. Ishtiaque Hussain Qureshi, Karachi, University.