Updated: Apr 29
The word Hudood is an Arabic word and is the plural of Hud. Hudood means borders, boundaries, limits etc.
In our Mahdavia parlance, it refers to the basic guidelines and the limits that govern the behavior of a person in the day to day life, ordained by Allah and explained by Hazrath Mehdi Al Maood Mubayyin e Kalamullah (the explainer of the Quran) AHS. As there are legal boundaries and rules and regulations and legal requirements that every citizen is required to abide by, in the day to day life, likewise there are the boundaries and limitations and requirements that are to be followed by the followers of every religion. In our Mahdavia community these guidelines are known as Hudood, starting with the basics, they eventually encompass the whole of the Holy Quran.
There are different limits, guidelines and conditions for Kasibs and Fuqara (plural of Faqeer). A kasib is a person who strives to earn a living. A Faqeer (or a Murshid) is a person who has renounced the world (Tarik ud Duniya) and is totally reliant and dependent on Allah. The hudood for the Fuqara and Murshids include the limits of the Kasibs and then some. The Fuqara are held to a higher standard than the Kasibs and the Murshids are held to even higher standards, as they are the spiritual guides and role models for the Fuqara and the Kasibs. The Murshids being the mentors of the Fuqara who come into their Dairas, in quest of the Vision of Allah (Deedar) are expected to be more piteous, righteous, learned and knowledgeable than the Fuqara. These Hudood have been derived from the various edicts in the Quran and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).
In this respect a Naql (narration) is cited here, from Hashia Insaf Nama (English translation by Late Hazrath Syed Ziaullah Sahib RH), regarding the Hudood e Kasab: "Somebody is narrated to have asked Imam Mahdi AS, "How is earning (Kasab)?" The Imam AS said, "First, the kasib (earner) should be a mu’min (believer)," Then again the questioner asked, "Should one become a mu’min and then engage in Kasab (earning)?" The Imam AS said, "Maybe, the person, who is already in the position of apostles of Allah, may observe the limits of Kasab (earning)." The questioner asked, "What are the limits of Kasab?" The Imam AS said, "First, the kasib should trust Allah and should not focus his sights on his own efforts. Secondly, he should say his prayers five times a day in jamaat (congregation). Thirdly, he should always be engaged in zikr (remembrance of Allah). Fourthly, he should not be greedy. He should be content with little food and enough clothing to cover the body. Fifthly, he should fully pay ushr (tithe), that is, one-tenth of the income as charity in the way of Allah. Sixthly, He should remain in the company of the seekers of Allah. Seventhly, he should always reproach (censure) himself. Eighthly, he should always protect the two occasions every day, that is, from the morning prayers to sunrise and from 'Asr (late afternoon) prayers to sunset.(i.e. do the Zikrullah during this time) Ninthly, he is not permitted to do any work after azan (prayer call). Such work is haram (prohibited). If he does any work, any earnings from such work would be haram (prohibited). (i.e. first offer the farz namaz once the Azan has been said). Tenthly, he should not lie by word of mouth. He should follow whatever has come in the Quran by way of command and avoid all interdictions. Allah says in Qurān: Indeed those who believe not in Allah and His apostles and say, “We believe in some and believe not in some and desire to take a middle path, -These are the unbelievers in reality and for the unbelievers, We have prepared a humiliating chastisement. If the kāsib can guard the limits, described above, Allah will make him perform tark-e-duniyā and grant him His deedar (vision). If he violates these limits, it is impossible for him to continue to remain a mu’min (believer).”
THE FUQARA AND THE MURSHIDS are obligated to perform all the Faraiz e Vilayath, are also bound by the basics stated in the Hudood e Kasab and are held to a higher standards with more restrictions in their behavior, starting with not being allowed to do kasab (strive to earn for a living), and be reliant on Allah at all times for their basic needs. This is called Tawakkal. For the Fuqara this has been taken a step farther. The kasibs areH allowed to earn a living but at the same time are instructed to trust in Allah and not to eye their efforts as the source of their earnings i.e. trust in Allah but allowed to do Kasab. The Murshids are responsible to take care of the Fuqara and distribute equally among the Fuqara, from whatever they receive in the name of Allah, from the kasibs, who are obligated to give the tieth or ushr i.e ten percent of the earnings in the name of Allah, and retain an equal share for themselves.
The purpose of Tark e Duniya is to leave all worldly work and material wealth and turn towards Allah with single minded devotion. After Tark e Duniya the most important obligation is Zikr e Dawam (perpetual remembrance of Allah). The regimen for the Zikr is also more elaborate and stringent for the Fuqara. The kasibs are required to protect the two occasions i.e. every morning and evening. The Schedule of Zikr for the Fuqara is
from the early fajr to one and a half pahr (one pahr is 3 hours) of the rising day, from Zuhr to Isha and one pahr in the night which is also called as ‘staying awake for naubat’. And if there is Bayaan e Quran (explanation of the meaning of the Quran) by the Murshid between Asr and Maghrib, then listen to it.
The obligation of Uzlath uz Khalq (staying away from the people) must be observed. One of the reasons for this is that it facilitates in the perpetual remembrance of Allah and complies with aspects of Tark e Duniya. The Fuqara are required to stay in the Daira and are strictly prohibited from visiting the houses of the kasibs, especially the wealthy ones. The Fuqara are required to stay in their abodes and only allowed to go out just to buy any groceries and other necessities, and not to mingle with the general public.
The Fuqara are prohibited from asking for alms and charity, and are strictly prohibited from begging, even in case of severe need. In case of very severe starvation, they can do kasab just to survive for that day, and then be reliant on Allah.
Hijrath is also one of the obligations that need to be observed
Fuqara are not allowed to hoard anything, and not to accept any ushr or any other kind of charity, unless they are needy, as has been the practice during the times of the Companions of Imamuna AS, and thereafter. Imamuna AS said a Momin does not hoard (momin zakheera na kunad).
May Allah grant all of us the guidance to observe the HUDOOD. Ameen